The Universe

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llcoolw

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Feb 7, 2005
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#61
So we just run into a wall and that's the end? What's out there other than more space?
One thought is that if space is infinite then the expansion is just inflating into brand new space. The other thought that has began to gain steam is a finite universe that just expands on itself. You've probable heard of the balloon example. Where we plot galaxies on a deflated balloon. Then blow air in the balloon and it shows each galaxy moving away from all the others. Imagine we are standing on the balloon edge and its inflating. What would it it look like?
What's scary to me is why is it accelerating.
 

Cimarron

It's not dying I'm talking about, it's living.
Jun 28, 2007
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#62
One thought is that if space is infinite then the expansion is just inflating into brand new space. The other thought that has began to gain steam is a finite universe that just expands on itself. You've probable heard of the balloon example. Where we plot galaxies on a deflated balloon. Then blow air in the balloon and it shows each galaxy moving away from all the others. Imagine we are standing on the balloon edge and its inflating. What would it it look like?
What's scary to me is why is it accelerating.
If space isn't infinite where does it expand to?
 

Cimarron

It's not dying I'm talking about, it's living.
Jun 28, 2007
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#64
World's smartest man says other universes. Like a glob of bubbles.
Yes, we are discussing two different things and it's my fault, universe and space. Space is infinite....

But back to the puzzle, are all of the universes expanding? if all the bubbles expand do some blow up? :)
 

llcoolw

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#65
Yes, we are discussing two different things and it's my fault, universe and space. Space is infinite....

But back to the puzzle, are all of the universes expanding? if all the bubbles expand do some blow up? :)
Some of theorized a great "crush". Believe it or not but there are teams racing out theories on how to reach the edge of space.
 

Binman4OSU

Legendary Cowboy
Aug 31, 2007
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Stupid about AGW!!
#66
Well what ever is out there..we are getting closer and closer to a better look at it. Right now the Hubble is giving us the best shots known to man of the universe. The Hubble is about the size of a car.

The James Webb Space Telescope is a multi country project led by NASA with the help of Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK

The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched Oct 2018. To put it into perspective here is a comparison of the Hubble mirror and the JWST mirror .



here is a full scale model of it that is on display at the NASA Goddard institute that was built in 2005



This shows where the JWST will be positioned once in Space



It is currently bieng assembled and getting ready for its 2018 launch date


NASA has just given formal permission yesterday to begin work on the JWST replacement called the WFIRST (Wide Field Infra Red Survey Telescope)..Congress approved $56 million in 2014 for the project, $50 million in 2015..and in 2016 NASA requested $14 million for the project but Congress decided to speed things up and approved $90 million for the project.





This will have a view field 100 X larger than Hubble...this telescope will have the ability to block out the light received from the primary stars and allow NASA to see the smaller objects around the star and is expected that will allow NASA to identify 10,000 of thousands of smaller objects (moons, planets etc etc) that are orbiting bright stars like our Sun

The expected launch date of this is in the mid 2020's
 

Binman4OSU

Legendary Cowboy
Aug 31, 2007
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Stupid about AGW!!
#67
Both of these are exponentially more powerful than the Hubble which conceived back in the 1960's...can you imagine just what we will be able to see in the next 20 years??!!

Here are some of the most amazing pics that Hubble has given us of the universe so far
























 
Mar 23, 2013
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#69
Einstein's gravitational waves detected in scientific milestone


© AP Photo Dr. Albert Einstein writes out an equation for the density of the Milky Way on the blackboard at the Carnegie Institute, Mt. Wilson Observatory headquarters in Pasadena, Calif., on Jan. 14, 1931. Einstein achieved world renown in 1905…WASHINGTON/CAMBRIDGE, Mass., Feb 11 (Reuters) - Scientists said on Thursday they have for the first time detected gravitational waves, ripples in space and time hypothesized by physicist Albert Einstein a century ago, in a landmark discovery that opens a new window for studying the cosmos.

The researchers said they detected gravitational waves coming from two black holes - extraordinarily dense objects whose existence also was foreseen by Einstein - that orbited one another, spiraled inward and smashed together. They said the waves were the product of a collision between two black holes 30 times as massive as the Sun, located 1.3 billion light years from Earth.

The scientific milestone, announced at a news conference in Washington, was achieved using a pair of giant laser detectors in the United States, located in Louisiana and Washington state, capping a long quest to confirm the existence of these waves.

The announcement was made in Washington by scientists from the California Institute of Technology, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.

Like light, gravity travels in waves, but instead of radiation, it is space itself that is rippling. Detecting the gravitational waves required measuring 2.5-mile (4 km) laser beams to a precision 10,000 times smaller than a proton.

The two laser instruments, which work in unison, are known as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). They are able to detect remarkably small vibrations from passing gravitational waves. After detecting the gravitational wave signal, the scientists said they converted it into audio waves and were able to listen to the sounds of the two black holes merging.

"We're actually hearing them go thump in the night," MIT physicist Matthew Evans said. "We're getting a signal which arrives at Earth, and we can put it on a speaker, and we can hear these black holes go, 'Whoop.' There's a very visceral connection to this observation."

The scientists said they first detected the gravitational waves last Sept. 14.

"We are really witnessing the opening of a new tool for doing astronomy," MIT astrophysicist Nergis Mavalvala said in an interview. "We have turned on a new sense. We have been able to see and now we will be able to hear as well."

The LIGO work is funded by the National Science Foundation, an independent agency of the U.S. government.

Einstein in 1916 proposed the existence of gravitational waves as an outgrowth of his ground-breaking general theory of relativity, which depicted gravity as a distortion of space and time triggered by the presence of matter. But until now scientists had found only indirect evidence of their existence.

OPEN THE DOOR

Scientists said gravitational waves open a door for a new way to observe the universe and gain knowledge about enigmatic objects like black holes and neutron stars. By studying gravitational waves they also hope to gain insight into the nature of the very early universe, which has remained mysterious.

Everything we know about the cosmos stems from electromagnetic waves such as radio waves, visible light, infrared light, X-rays and gamma rays. But because such waves encounter interference as they travel across the universe, they can tell only part of the story.

Gravitational waves experience no such barriers, meaning they can offer a wealth of additional information. Black holes, for example, do not emit light, radio waves and the like, but can be studied via gravitational waves.

Scientists sounded positively giddy over the discovery.

"It is really a truly, truly exciting event," said Abhay Ashtekar, director of Penn State University's Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos. "It opens a brand new window on the universe."

"The LIGO announcement describes one of the greatest scientific discoveries of the past 50 years," Cornell University physicist Saul Teukolsky added.

Ashtekar said heavy celestial objects bend space and time but because of the relative weakness of the gravitational force the effect is miniscule except from massive and dense bodies like black holes and neutron stars. He said that when these objects collide, they send out ripples in the curvature of space and time that propagate as gravitational waves.

The detection of gravitational waves already has provided unique insight into black holes, with the scientists saying it has demonstrated that there are plenty of black holes in the range of tens of solar masses, resolving the long debated issue of the existence of black holes of that size.

A black hole, a region of space so packed with matter that not even photons of light can escape the force of gravity, was detected for the first time in 1971. Scientists have known the existence of small black holes and so-called supermassive black holes are millions or billions of times as massive as the sun, but had debated the existence of black holes of intermediate size.

Neutron stars are small, about the size of a city, but are extremely heavy, the compact remains of a larger star that died in a supernova explosion.


The LIGO lab at Livingston in Louisiana saw it first. The Hanford, Washington State, observatory 3,000km away sensed the bump seven milliseconds later. The distance to the event, the scientists are pretty confident about; the location, less so. Somewhere in the southern sky.
 

llcoolw

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#70


The LIGO lab at Livingston in Louisiana saw it first. The Hanford, Washington State, observatory 3,000km away sensed the bump seven milliseconds later. The distance to the event, the scientists are pretty confident about; the location, less so. Somewhere in the southern sky.
You know you're a giddy nerd if you listened to the actual waves as loud as you can.
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=QyDcTbR-kEA
 

Boomer.....

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Feb 15, 2007
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#72

ATLASGAL Survey of Milky Way Completed
A spectacular new image of the Milky Way has been released to mark the completion of the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL). The APEX telescope in Chile has mapped the full area of the Galactic Plane visible from the southern hemisphere for the first time at submillimetre wavelengths — between infrared light and radio waves — and in finer detail than recent space-based surveys.
http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1606/
 

llcoolw

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#73
Astronomers say they’ve found the biggest structure in the universe and they named it the BOSS



Anyway, scientists working for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey— the international galaxy-mapping effort from which the BOSS gets its truly spectacular acronym — say that the newly discovered cosmic feature is the largest structure in the universe. Or at least, as much of the universe as they’ve mapped so far.

In a study published in the newest issue of the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, the scientists describe the BOSS Great Wall (BGW) as an enormous collection of galaxies more than one billion light-years across.

“It was so much bigger than anything else in this volume,” Heidi Lietzen of the Canary Islands Institute of Astrophysics, a lead author on the study, told the New Scientist.

“Walls” like the BGW are part of the underlying structure of the universe. Most of space is a vast empty void, and all the stuff that astronomers look for — stars, planets, the galaxies they constitute — is threaded through that nothingness. Pulled together by gravity, galaxies coalesce into clusters, which in turn form larger structures called superclusters, as explained by PBS. Those are then corralled into “walls” — the coronary arteries of this giant system of matter, and the biggest things in space.

Researchers for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (the BOSS survey is one of its projects) have been trying to map that web in order to better understand the universe’s history, size and speed of expansion. Using a dedicated telescope located in the remote desert scrubland of Sunspot, N.M., they scan huge swaths of the sky for distant galaxies, brilliant quasars and other celestial objects.

In the process, they’ve found some pretty enormous things. Like the “Sloan Great Wall,” which Lietzen and her co-authors say is the closest system of superclusters comparable to the BGW.

But even that is dwarfed by the Sloan survey’s newest find. The BOSS Great Wall has ten times the volume of the Sloan wall and is almost 70 percent larger in diameter. It comprises four superclusters containing 830 galaxies, and it looms in space some 5 billion light-years away from Earth. (For what it’s worth, the biggest thing in our neck of the woods, the Laniakea supercluster that includes our own Milky Way galaxy, is less than half the size of the BGW.)

Indeed, the BGW is so big that some scientists question whether it can really be considered all one thing.

“I don’t entirely understand why they are connecting all of these features together to call them a single structure,” Allison Coil, an astrophysicist at the University of California at San Diego, told the New Scientist. “There are clearly kinks and bends in this structure that don’t exist, for example, in the Sloan Great Wall.”

But size isn’t really the point, Smithsonian Magazine noted. The discovery of the BOSS Great Wall is just one part of a larger survey that will — astronomers hope — reveal not just what the universe looks like, but how it’s evolved and how it continues to change.

Which is a very nice sentiment. But the BOSS Great Wall is still biggest. And you know what that makes it?

A winner.
 

llcoolw

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#75
Now there's an ocean?
(NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA) Ceres' unusually bright spots. Nestled 250 million miles from Earth, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is the largest object in the asteroid belt, Ceres.

Ceres is home to some of the most puzzling features ever observed in our solar system, including a giant pyramid that dwarfs many mountains on Earth as well as several dazzling bright spots, located inside of a 50-mile-wide crater.

Now, recent research, led by astronomers at the INAF-Trieste Astronomical Observatory in Italy, has discovered that these unique bright spots are doing something unexpected: they're changing.

And it could point to some of the most compelling evidence yet for a huge underground ocean sloshing beneath Ceres' rocky shell.

A misty glow
We first got a good look at Ceres and its perplexing landscape last year, when the Dawn spacecraft fell into orbit around it. But Dawn isn't the only instrument scientists are using to study Ceres.


Using the European Southern Observatory’s 3.6-meter telescope, the team noticed that Ceres' spots appear to vary in brightness over time — growing brighter before dimming back down, like a lightning bug on a summer night.
Interestingly, the spots are brightest when they're on the day side of Ceres, facing the sun. This has led the team to suspect that these surprising changes are due to sublimation – when a solid becomes a gas.

Heat from the sun's light sublimates certain materials, which then forms a visible misty haze above the spots, the team reported in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

When additional sunlight then strikes the mist, it scatters the light, giving off a brilliant glow, which makes the spots appear brighter.

The mist, however, is only temporary. It seems to evaporate within a few hours after forming. Without any mist hanging over them, the spots then appear to dim, which explains the variable changes the team observed.

But there's one thing the mist doesn't explain: What's fueling it in the first place.

A grand ocean in space
(NASA/ESA) Ceres has been around since the start of our solar system, which makes it roughly 4.6 billion years old.

If these spots have been shooting off mist for that long, they should have disappeared by now, unless some source was continuously supplying the material.

So what's going on?

The team suspects that a vast underground ocean could be swelling up through cracks in Ceres' crust, which form after a powerful impact.

"It is assumed that something comes out from [the] interior of the planet where there is a large amount of water and that can evaporate filling the crater and eventually dispersed under the action of solar radiation," the team stated in a press release.

If there's liquid water underneath Ceres' surface, that means there must also be a heat source.

Ceres is turning out to be a far more interesting world than we thought.

From yahoo https://www.yahoo.com/finance/news/something-unexpected-happening-those-mysterious-163417488.html
 
Mar 23, 2013
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#76
Why there might be many more universes besides our own

The idea of parallel universes may seem bizarre, but physics has found all sorts of reasons why they should exist

  • By Philip Ball
21 March 2016
Is our Universe one of many?

The idea of parallel universes, once consigned to science fiction, is now becoming respectable among scientists – at least, among physicists, who have a tendency to push ideas to the limits of what is conceivable.

In fact there are almost too many other potential universes. Physicists have proposed several candidate forms of "multiverse", each made possible by a different aspect of the laws of physics.

The trouble is, virtually by definition we probably cannot ever visit these other universes to confirm that they exist. So the question is, can we devise other ways to test for the existence of entire universes that we cannot see or touch?

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160318-why-there-might-be-many-more-universes-besides-our-own
 

Boomer.....

Territorial Marshal
Feb 15, 2007
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#77
What if the detection of alien life is because they are from another parallel universe and not some distant galaxy in our solar system? They may have the advanced technology to leap from one universe to another instead of our notion that they are traveling millions of light years away.