Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use

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Feb 11, 2007
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#1
"Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use
Nora D. Volkow, M.D., Ruben D. Baler, Ph.D., Wilson M. Compton, M.D., and Susan R.B. Weiss, Ph.D.
N Engl J Med 2014; 370:2219-2227June 5, 2014DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1402309
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Despite some contentious discussions regarding the addictiveness of marijuana, the evidence clearly indicates that long-term marijuana use can lead to addiction. Indeed, approximately 9% of those who experiment with marijuana will become addicted (according to the criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition).
The negative effect of marijuana use on the functional connectivity of the brain is particularly prominent if use starts in adolescence or young adulthood, which may help to explain the finding of an association between frequent use of marijuana from adolescence into adulthood and significant declines in IQ. Early and regular marijuana use predicts an increased risk of marijuana addiction, which in turn predicts an increased risk of the use of other illicit drugs. The effects of long-term marijuana smoking on the risk of lung cancer are unclear. Both immediate exposure and long-term exposure to marijuana impair driving ability. According to a meta-analysis, the overall risk of involvement in an accident increases by a factor of about 2 when a person drives soon after using marijuana.
Regular marijuana use is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression, but causality has not been established."
 

Jostate

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#3
I think it's funny that cigarette smoking has become the greatest sin on the planet at the same time sucking another kind of smoke in your lungs is seen, by many, as liberating and healthy.
 

Jostate

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BTW, all the (cigarette) smoking bashers are gaining so much traction now I'm hearing reports that 3rd hand smoke can lead to cancer. Yes 3rd hand smoke is a real thing.

Just stop already. I'm about to start smoking just because the anti tobacco crowd is getting so fascist.
 

Duke Silver

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BTW, all the (cigarette) smoking bashers are gaining so much traction now I'm hearing reports that 3rd hand smoke can lead to cancer. Yes 3rd hand smoke is a real thing.

Just stop already. I'm about to start smoking just because the anti tobacco crowd is getting so fascist.
Compared to most I have met, fascists are lenient.
 

okstate987

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#6
"Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use
Nora D. Volkow, M.D., Ruben D. Baler, Ph.D., Wilson M. Compton, M.D., and Susan R.B. Weiss, Ph.D.
N Engl J Med 2014; 370:2219-2227June 5, 2014DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1402309
Share:



Despite some contentious discussions regarding the addictiveness of marijuana, the evidence clearly indicates that long-term marijuana use can lead to addiction. Indeed, approximately 9% of those who experiment with marijuana will become addicted (according to the criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition).
The negative effect of marijuana use on the functional connectivity of the brain is particularly prominent if use starts in adolescence or young adulthood, which may help to explain the finding of an association between frequent use of marijuana from adolescence into adulthood and significant declines in IQ. Early and regular marijuana use predicts an increased risk of marijuana addiction, which in turn predicts an increased risk of the use of other illicit drugs. The effects of long-term marijuana smoking on the risk of lung cancer are unclear. Both immediate exposure and long-term exposure to marijuana impair driving ability. According to a meta-analysis, the overall risk of involvement in an accident increases by a factor of about 2 when a person drives soon after using marijuana.
Regular marijuana use is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression, but causality has not been established."
Splendor in the Grass? A Pilot Study Assessing the Impact of Medical Marijuana on Executive Function.

Currently, 25 states and Washington DC have enacted full medical marijuana (MMJ) programs while 18 states allow limited access to MMJ products. Limited access states permit low (or zero) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and high cannabidiol (CBD) products to treat specified conditions such as uncontrolled epilepsy. Although MMJ products are derived from the same plant species as recreational MJ, they are often selected for their unique cannabinoid constituents and ratios, not typically sought by recreational users, which may impact neurocognitive outcomes. To date, few studies have investigated the potential impact of MMJ use on cognitive performance, despite a well-documented association between recreational marijuana (MJ) use and executive dysfunction. The current study assessed the impact of 3 months of MMJ treatment on executive function, exploring whether MMJ patients would experience improvement in cognitive functioning, perhaps related to primary symptom alleviation. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 24 patients certified for MMJ use completed baseline executive functionassessments and 11 of these so far have returned for their first follow-up visit 3 months after initiating treatment. Results suggest that in general, MMJ patients experienced some improvement on measures of executive functioning, including the Stroop Color Word Test and Trail Making Test, mostly reflected as increased speed in completing tasks without a loss of accuracy. On self-report questionnaires, patients also indicated moderate improvements in clinical state, including reduced sleep disturbance, decreased symptoms of depression, attenuated impulsivity, and positive changes in some aspects of quality of life. Additionally, patients reported a notable decrease in their use of conventional pharmaceutical agents from baseline, with opiate use declining more than 42%. While intriguing, these findings are preliminary and warrant further investigation at additional time points and in larger sample sizes. Given the likelihood of increased MMJ use across the country, it is imperative to determine the potential impact of short- and long-term treatment on cognitive performance as well as the efficacy of MMJ treatment itself.
From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=plendor+in+the+Grass?+A+Pilot+Study+Assessing+the+Impact+of+Medical+Marijuana+on+Executive+Function

Association of Cannabis With Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA Psychiatry. 2018;75(6):585-595. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.0335

Key Points
Question Is frequent or heavy cannabis use associated with cognitive dysfunction in adolescents and young adults?
Findings This systematic review and meta-analysis of 69 cross-sectional studies of 2152 cannabis users and 6575 comparison participants showed a small but significant overall effect size for reduced cognitive functioning in adolescents and young adults who reported frequent cannabis use. However, studies requiring abstinence from cannabis for longer than 72 hours had a very small, nonsignificant effect size.
Meaning
Although continued cannabis use may be associated with small reductions in cognitive functioning, results suggest that cognitive deficits are substantially diminished with abstinence.

Read more: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2678214

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Also related:
Political views, morality, and attitudes toward marijuana legalization

In this paper, we examine why attitudes toward marijuana legalization are split along ideological lines. In a survey, we found that conservatives were more likely to oppose this policy partly because of their greater reliance on the authority and purity foundations of morality. Curiously, concerns about harm were found to play no role in determining attitudes toward marijuana legalization, even though those who were against this policy frequently explained their views with harm-related accounts. In an experiment, we found that opponents of legalization were more likely to adopt a more favorable view towards it when exposed to arguments and sources that were consistent with the authority and purity dimensions of morality. Precisely, subjects who initially opposed legalization were more likely to change their attitudes when exposed to arguments that were based on the purity (vs. harm) foundation of morality, and when they were led to believe that these arguments were given by religious (vs. business) leaders.
The whole study is here: http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/dspace/handle/10438/24098
 
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okstate987

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Opiod addiction as you know are a major and growing problem said to be the most common cause of death in young people.
No, its not. Its not even in the top 4 causes of death.

"Unintentional injury and homicide were the leading causes of death among residents ages 15–24, each accounting for 34.2% and 32.9%, respectively, of all deaths. These were followed by suicide (9.9%) and cancer (5.8%)."
https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/adolescent-health.htm

You really just make stuff as you go, dont you?
 
Feb 11, 2007
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#10
@docjoctoo didn't you disclose you are a pain med doc? I have a feeling that is the real reason why you are opposed to medical marijuana.
Pain clinics are always on guard to prevent as much as possible addiction to opoids. They screen new patients looking to see if they can be trusted to strictly follow the doctors directions to take only those pain medications as prescribed and no other medications. Those who have a history of using marijuana are known
to be at higher risk of not following the physicians recommendations. Some pain clinic doctors therefore reject accepting these patients since they are considered "high risk" for addiction to opioids. .
 

okstate987

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Pain clinics are always on guard to prevent as much as possible addiction to opoids. They screen new patients looking to see if they can be trusted to strictly follow the doctors directions to take only those pain medications as prescribed and no other medications. Those who have a history of using marijuana are known
to be at higher risk of not following the physicians recommendations. Some pain clinic doctors therefore reject accepting these patients since they are considered "high risk" for addiction to opioids. .
Its opioids man, not opoids and there are a number of studies that show states that legalize medical marijuana have reduced opioid perscriptions. You are doling out arguably the most addictive medicines out there and are resistant to the use of a less harmful option. What happened to going to the less risky option? Have pharmaceutical reps persuaded you to not take that into consideration?

See below:
Rates of opioid prescriptions went down in states that implemented laws allowing access to medical marijuana, according to two studies published today (April 2) in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine.

The findings suggest that access to medical marijuana may have cut patients' need for opioids to manage their pain, the researchers said.

"There has been substantive evidence that marijuanacan relieve pain at a lower risk of addiction than opioids and with virtually no risk of overdose," said lead study author Hefei Wen, an assistant professor of health management and policy at the University of Kentucky College of Public Health in Lexington, Kentucky. "The potential for marijuana policies to reduce the use of addictive opioids deserves consideration, especially in states that have been hit hard by the opioid epidemic." [25 Odd Facts About Marijuana]

In one of the studies, Wen and her colleague Jason M. Hockenberry, associate professor of health policy at Emory Universtiy in Atlanta, analyzed rates of opioids prescriptions during 2011 and 2016 for Medicaid enrollees — a population that has a a relative high risk for chronic pain and opioid addiction, Wen said. They found that the rates of opioid prescribing in states that had legalized medical marijuana dropped by 5.9 percent annually, on average. What's more, states that widened access further, by legalizing the recreational use of marijuana, saw a 6.4-percent annual decrease, on average.

In the second study, another team of researchers looked at the number of opioid prescriptions filled under Medicare in all U.S. states from 2010 through 2015. Studies suggest marijuana use is rising fastest among older Americans—a group that's also most likely to have the type of pain conditions that respond best to marijuana, the researchers said. Opioid prescriptions fell by 2.21 million daily doses per year, on average, in states that legalized medical marijuana — an 8.5-percent decrease — compared with opioid prescriptions in states that didn't legalize the drug.

Marijuana vs. opioids

Studies show that cannabinoids — chemical components in Cannabis plants — can be effective in alleviating some kinds of pain, and "a mountain of anecdotal evidence from patients" suggests that some who turn to medical marijuana for chronic pain end up needing fewer opioids, said Dr. Kevin Hill, an associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School who was not involved with the studies.

"And now, with these two papers, plus a handful of previous studies, we've got pretty compelling evidence that shows that we need to really to think about cannabis as a potential way to curb the opioid crisis," said Hill, who co-authored an editorial that was published alongside the two studies in the same journal.

Opioids are a class of strong pain medications, including drugs such as OxyContin (oxycodone) and Vicodin(a combination of hydrocodone and acetaminophen). Opioids bind to opioid receptors in the body and cause feelings of euphoria. They are highly addictive, and can lead to drug abuse, severe complications and overdose deaths. The number of Americans dying from opioid overdoses continues to rise; there were more than 42,000 U.S. deaths from this cause in 2016, up from 33,000 deaths in 2015, according to a March 30 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Most people, including teenagers, with an opioid-use disorder start out with a legitimate prescription for the drugs from health care providers for pain management. Marijuana may be an alternative to consider for some of these patients, experts say; the cannabinoids in the drug bind to the body's cannabinoid receptors, which are part of an internal pain-relieving system.

Still, it may not be possible to replace all kinds of pain medications with marijuana. So far, clinical studies suggest that marijuana is effective in easing chronic pain, neuropathic pain (pain caused by damage to the nervous system), and involuntary and continuous muscle contractions associated with multiple sclerosis, Hill told Live Science. But to know whether marijuana is as effective for other types of pain, more research needs to be done, he added. [Could We Beat the Opioid Epidemic by Easing Pain with Marijuana?]

What's more, studying prescription data from states can only reveal a correlation between medical-marijuana laws and a reduction in opioid use; it can't show a cause-and-effect relationship, Hill said. Future studies should take a closer look at the link by performing randomized clinical trials to see the effects of taking marijuana for pain or following patients to see if marijuana helped them avoid opioids altogether or only lower their use.

Marijuana alone cannot fix the country's opioid problem. "It is but one aspect of a comprehensive package to tackle the epidemic," Wen told Live Science. Other essential strategies include providing appropriate pain management and various nonopioid and nonmedical alternatives, as well as improving access to addiction treatment, she said.

https://www.livescience.com/62193-legalizing-marijuana-surprising-benefit.html
 

Binman4OSU

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#12
As far as pain management is concerned. I'm glad there is a new option for Oklahoman's to try other than Opioids. I am staunchly opposed to recreational MJ but for medical purposes it does have a place for people suffering from seizures and is a viable option for some for pain management.

I first hand saw how over prescribed Opioids are after going through a shoulder surgery about 5 years ago. Every 2 week check up for 6 weeks the doc offered me 100 more very strong opioid pain pills if I wanted them. Over the course of my recovery and rehab, I took a total of 90 of them in 3 months....which was more than plenty...but I had been offered 300 of a highly addictive substance to control pain.

At least there is an option now
 

Jostate

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As far as pain management is concerned. I'm glad there is a new option for Oklahoman's to try other than Opioids. I am staunchly opposed to recreational MJ but for medical purposes it does have a place for people suffering from seizures and is a viable option for some for pain management.
You know this law is about to get exploited and abused to the point it becomes comical. It already is the type of thing people will try to use to get recreational, and I'm told by people who pay more attention than myself it was a poorly worded law.

It sounds to me like now you have to say your toe hurts first before you get your doobage.
 

Binman4OSU

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#14
You know this law is about to get exploited and abused to the point it becomes comical. It already is the type of thing people will try to use to get recreational, and I'm told by people who pay more attention than myself it was a poorly worded law.

It sounds to me like now you have to say your toe hurts first before you get your doobage.
I can call a doctor now and go in and tell them my toe hurts and get opioids as well. Opioids are already exploited and abused and used recreational...if anyone thought this wouldn't be a possibility with medical MJ then you had to have had your head in the sand.
 

Jostate

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I can call a doctor now and go in and tell them my toe hurts and get opioids as well. Opioids are already exploited and abused and used recreational...if anyone thought this wouldn't be a possibility with medical MJ then you had to have had your head in the sand.
Just because we have a current problem with opioids doesn't make me any happier about another potential problem. I'm not opposed to medical mj, I just understood this to be a poorly written bill.

Honestly I'd be okay with just legalizing it altogether.
 
Feb 11, 2007
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#16
As far as pain management is concerned. I'm glad there is a new option for Oklahoman's to try other than Opioids. I am staunchly opposed to recreational MJ but for medical purposes it does have a place for people suffering from seizures and is a viable option for some for pain management.

I first hand saw how over prescribed Opioids are after going through a shoulder surgery about 5 years ago. Every 2 week check up for 6 weeks the doc offered me 100 more very strong opioid pain pills if I wanted them. Over the course of my recovery and rehab, I took a total of 90 of them in 3 months....which was more than plenty...but I had been offered 300 of a highly addictive substance to control pain.

At least there is an option now
I too had a major orthopedic procedure. But because of my full awareness of opioid addiction and its immediate side effects I refused this medication. Instead II took low dose Tylenol. It worked fine for me.

Virtually all medications have side effects so that users should be fully aware of the advantages and dangers of any medication that they take. Any medication to be called a medicine must be approved before usage by the FDA. This include extensive studies to demonstrate efficacy and any observed side effects. Marijuana may in the future complete this process and earn the right to be called a medicine but as yet the scientific studies are very "thin" to prove efficacy and long term adverse side effects unknown.
 

Binman4OSU

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OSU79

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Just last week the FDA approved Epidolex which is a CBD as the first ever FDA approved medicine derived from marijuana plants.

This after a 4 year trial which showed that CBD had success in relieving symptoms of seizure disorders that are highly resistant to current and existing treatments

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/fda-approves-first-drug-derived-from-marijuana/
This is what I didn't understand about the whole MMJ discussion/vote. If it's truly for medical purposes, why not approve CBD, either OTC or by prescription? Why is everyone allowed to grow their own?

Not saying I'm 100% against a law allowing you to grow your own, just think the law and the reasoning should be clear.

I haven't partaken in about 35 years, but following my imminent retirement I might try a gummi bear or two.
 
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Just last week the FDA approved Epidolex which is a CBD as the first ever FDA approved medicine derived from marijuana plants.

This after a 4 year trial which showed that CBD had success in relieving symptoms of seizure disorders that are highly resistant to current and existing treatments

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/fda-approves-first-drug-derived-from-marijuana/
No one objects to isolate one or more of the 400 or so compounds found in the plant to study and use for medical treatments. The problem is to use the whole plant, in varying dosage of its many compounds and call it Medical Marijuana. Compounds isolated from plants have been used for many years in medicine.